Learn the different types of meat cooking techniques
Methods of cooking meat include:
- Dry heat (roasting, broiling, pan-broiling, pan-frying, stir-frying and outdoor grilling
- Moist heat (braising, and cooking in liquid)
Methods should be selected based on initial tenderness of the cut, desired quality characteristics of the resulting product, available cooking facilities and equipment, and the amount of time available for preparation
Tender cuts of meat, cooked by dry-heat methods, result in tender and juicy products. Less-tender cuts must be cooked for longer periods of time by moist-heat methods, to soften the connective tissue, prevent surface drying and develop flavour. Some less tender cuts such as beef top round and chunk arm can be cooked by a dry heat method if marinated before cooking
The degree of doneness can easily be determined by measuring internal temperature, using a standard meat thermometer or a quick recovery/instant read thermometer. The more tender the cut, the lower the internal temperature needed to produce a satisfactory product.
A meat thermometer is the most accurate guide to the doneness of roasts. The thermometer should be inserted into the roast surface at a slight angle or through the end of the roast so the tip of the thermometer is in the thickest portion of the cut, but not resting in fat, against the bone, or on the rotisserie, the thermometer must clear the cooking unit and drip pan while the meat is turning
Dry heat methods of cooking are suited for tender cuts of meat or less tender cuts which have been marinated. Roasting----this method of cooking is recommended for larger cuts of beef, veal, pork and lamb
Steps for roasting meat
- Season meat with spices, herbs, salt or other seasonings before, during or after cooking, as desired. Meat should be taken directly from the refrigerator and placed in a cold oven
- Place the meat with the fat side up, on a rack (to hold the roast out of the drippings) in an open, shallow roasting pan. The fat on top lets the meat baste itself as it cooks, so further moistening of the surface is unnecessary. In roasts such as a beef rib, a pork loin or a rack of lamb, the ribs form a natural rack.
- Insert a meat thermometer so the tip is in the centre of the roast. The tip should not touch the bone or rest in fat
- Add no water and do not cover. Roasting is a dry-heat method of cooking and if the pan is covered or water is added, the meat will be cooked by moist heat rather than roasted
- Roast in a slow oven-300 degrees F to 325 degrees F. It is not necessary to preheat the oven
- Remove the meat from the oven when the thermometer registers f\5 degrees lower than the desired level of doneness. The meat will continue to cook as it stands. The use of a meat thermometer will help to avoid overcooking or undercooking. Roasts are easier to carve if allowed to ‘set’ for 15 to 20 minutes after removing from the oven so juices can set up
- Roasting for a longer time and at a low temperature, 250 degrees F to 300 degrees F, is an acceptable for less tender cuts of meat, such as bottom round roast, although surface drying may occur if there is little fat covering.